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Abstract: New derivatives of the known antipsychotic drug olanzapine have been obtained as potential compounds with anticancer activity in two metabolically different breast cancer cell lines: MCF-7 and triple negative MDA-MB-231. The compounds were obtained under phase transfer catalysis (PTC) in the presence of microwave irradiation (MW) or ultrasound (“)))”), evaluating the effect of solvents such as dimethylformamide, water, or choline chloride/urea (natural deep eutectic solvent, NaDES). In the best option, the compounds were obtained within 2 minutes with a yield of 57–86% in MW. Two of the obtained compounds which have a naphthalimide moiety and a pentyl (7) or hexyl chain (8) show pronounced cytotoxicity. Interestingly, neither olanzapine nor desmethylolanzapine (DOLA), which was one of the substrates for the synthesis reaction, showed any significant activity in the study.
|DOI - PubMed|
PPM - ResearchGate
Abstract: According to WHO, infectious diseases are still a significant threat to public health. The combine effects of antibiotic resistance, immunopressure, and mutations within the bacterial and viral genomes necessitates the search for new molecules exhibiting antimicrobial and antiviral activities. Such molecules often contain cyclic guanidine moiety. As part of this work, we investigated the selected antimicrobial and antiviral activity of compounds from the cyclic arylguanidine group. Molecules were designed using molecular modeling and obtained using microwave radiation (MW) and sonochemical ()))) methods, in accordance with the previously developed pathways. The obtained compounds were screened for the ability to inhibit the growth of Escherichia coli, Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Candida albicans, and Cryptococcus neoformans. The capacity to block the entry of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) into the host cell was probed using a bioluminescence immunoassay. The cytotoxicity and hemolytic properties of the most active molecules were also evaluated. The N-[2-(naphthalen-1-yl)ethyl]-5-phenyl-1,4,5,6-tetrahydro-1,3,5-triazin-2-amine 12j showed a high inhibition of Staphylococcus aureus and Cryptococcus neoformans (MIC ≤ 0.25 µg/mL), with no cytotoxic nor hemolytic effect (CC50, HC10 > 32 µm/mL). The CO-ADD platform identified many potentially useful molecules. A particularly rich population was examined in the database of the N.D. Zelinsky Institute of Organic Chemistry, in which 2517 active molecules (MIC ≤ 32 mg/mL) were found, of which about 10% are active at very low concentrations (MIC ≤ 1 mg/mL).
|DOI - PubMed|
PPM - ResearchGate
Abstract: The aim of this study is to determine whether type I and type II positive allosteric modulators (PAMs) of α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) induce antidepressant-like activity in mice after acute, subchronic, and chronic treatments, and to assess whether α7-PAMs inhibit neurotransmitter transporters and activate mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin) and/or ERK (extracellular signal-regulated protein kinases) signaling. The forced swim (FST) and tail suspension (TST) test results indicated that NS-1738 (type I PAM), PNU-120596 and PAM-2 (type II PAMs) induce antidepressant-like activity after subchronic treatment, whereas PAM-2 was also active after chronic treatment. Methyllycaconitine (α7-antagonist) inhibited the observed effects, highlighting the involvement of α7 nAChRs in this process. Drug interaction studies showed synergism between PAM-2 and bupropion (antidepressant), but not between PAM-2 and DMXBA (α7-agonist). The studied PAMs showed no high affinity (< 1 µM) for the human dopamine, serotonin, and noradrenaline transporters, suggesting that transporter inhibition is not the underlying mechanism for the observed activity. To assess whether mTOR and ERK signaling pathways are involved in the activity of α7-PAMs, the phosphorylation status of key signaling nodes was determined in prefrontal cortex and hippocampus from mice chronically treated with PAM-2. In conclusion, the antidepressant-like activity of type I and type II PAMs is mediated by a mechanism involving α7 potentiation but not α7 desensitization or neurotransmitter transporter blockade, and is correlated with activation of both mTOR and ERK signaling pathways. These results support the view that α7-PAMs might be clinically used to ameliorate depression disorders.
Abstract: Kynurenine (KYN), a main metabolite of tryptophan in mammals, is a direct precursor of kynurenic acid, anthranilic acid and 3-hydroxykynurenine (3-HK). Under physiological conditions, KYN is produced endogenously mainly in the liver by tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase (TDO). Tumorigenesis and inflammatory conditions increase the activity of another KYN synthetizing enzyme, indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO). However, knowledge about the exogenous sources and the fate of KYN in mammals is still limited. While most papers deal with the contribution of KYN to pathologies of the central nervous system, its role in the periphery has almost been ignored. KYN is a ligand for the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). As a receptor for KYN and its downstream metabolites, AhR is involved in several physiological and pathological conditions, including inflammation and carcinogenesis. Recent studies have shown that KYN suppresses immune response and is strongly involved in the process of carcinogenesis and tumour metastasis. Thus, inhibition of activity of the enzymes responsible for KYN synthesis, TDO, IDO or genetic manipulation leading to reduction of KYN synthesis, could be considered as innovative strategies for improving the efficacy of immunotherapy. Surprisingly, however, genetic or pharmacological approaches for reducing tryptophan catabolism to KYN do not necessarily result in decrease of KYN level in the main circulation. This review aims to summarize the current knowledge of KYN fate and function and to emphasize its importance for vital physiological and pathological processes.
Abstract: The ability of styrene-maleic acid (SMAc) co-polymers to spontaneously insert into biological membranes can be exploited to extract G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) embedded in styrene-maleic acid lipid particles (SMALPs), preserving the native environment around the protein and thus enhancing the feasibility of functional studies. So far, the SMALP technology has been primarily employed on non-mammalian cells and protocols are not optimized for adherent human cell lines, which cannot be harvested in large amounts. In this work, a fine investigation of key parameters affecting the formation of SMALPs was undertaken with the purpose of maximizing the yield of extraction of a recombinant form of human β2-adrenergic receptor (rhβ2AR) from HEK293T cells. The study highlighted an important influence of ionic strength on the membrane solubilization efficiency and GPCR purification yield of SMAc co-polymers: by lowering the salt concentration of all buffers used in previously published SMALP protocols, the water solubility and extraction efficiency of the selected SMAc co-polymer (commercially supplied as a potassium salt) were enhanced. In-line combination of size-exclusion chromatography (SEC) with immobilized metal affinity chromatography (IMAC) allowed further improvement of the final rhβ2AR yield by reducing the loss of SMALP-embedded GPCRs during the fractionation and purification of SMALPs. The overall findings of this study show that the available SMALP protocols can be significantly optimized in several aspects in order to increase the efficiency of GPCR solubilization and isolation from low-yielding expression systems.
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↓ 2020 ↓
|DOI - PubMed|
Abstract: (R,R')-4'-methoxy-1-naphthylfenoterol [(R,R')-MNF] is a highly-selective β2 adrenergic receptor (β2-AR) agonist. Incubation of a panel of human-derived melanoma cell lines with (R,R')-MNF resulted in a dose- and time-dependent inhibition of motility as assessed by in vitro wound healing and xCELLigence migration and invasion assays. Activity of (R,R')-MNF positively correlated with the β2-AR expression levels across tested cell lines. The anti-motility activity of (R,R')-MNF was inhibited by the β2-AR antagonist ICI-118,551 and the protein kinase A inhibitor H-89. The adenylyl cyclase activator forskolin and the phosphodiesterase 4 inhibitor Ro 20-1724 mimicked the ability of (R,R')-MNF to inhibit migration of melanoma cell lines in culture, highlighting the importance of cAMP for this phenomenon. (R,R')-MNF caused significant inhibition of cell growth in β2-AR-expressing cells as monitored by radiolabeled thymidine incorporation and xCELLigence system. The MEK/ERK cascade functions in cellular proliferation, and constitutive phosphorylation of MEK and ERK at their active sites was significantly reduced upon β2-AR activation with (R,R')-MNF. Protein synthesis was inhibited concomitantly both with increased eEF2 phosphorylation and lower expression of tumor cell regulators, EGF receptors, cyclin A and MMP-9. Taken together, these results identified β2-AR as a novel potential target for melanoma management, and (R,R')-MNF as an efficient trigger of anti-tumorigenic cAMP/PKA-dependent signaling in β2-AR-expressing lesions.
|DOI - PubMed|
Abstract: (R,R')-4'-Methoxy-1-naphthylfenoterol (MNF) promotes growth inhibition and apoptosis of human HepG2 hepatocarcinoma cells via cannabinoid receptor (CBR) activation. The synthetic CB1R inverse agonist, AM251, has been shown to block the anti-mitogenic effect of MNF in these cells; however, AM251 is also an agonist of the recently deorphanized, lipid-sensing receptor, GPR55, whose upregulation contributes to carcinogenesis. Here, we investigated the role of MNF in GPR55 signaling in human HepG2 and PANC-1 cancer cell lines in culture by focusing first on internalization of the fluorescent ligand Tocrifluor 1117 (T1117). Initial results indicated that cell pretreatment with GPR55 agonists, including the atypical cannabinoid O-1602 and l-α-lysophosphatidylinositol, dose-dependently reduced the rate of cellular T1117 uptake, a process that was sensitive to MNF inhibition. GPR55 internalization and signaling mediated by O-1602 was blocked by MNF in GPR55-expressing HEK293 cells. Pretreatment of HepG2 and PANC-1 cells with MNF significantly abrogated the induction of ERK1/2 phosphorylation in response to AM251 and O-1602. Moreover, MNF exerted a coordinated negative regulation of AM251 and O-1602 inducible processes, including changes in cellular morphology and cell migration using scratch wound healing assay. This study shows for the first time that MNF impairs GPR55-mediated signaling and, therefore, may have therapeutic potential in the management of cancer.
|DOI - PubMed|
Abstract: (R,R')-4-methoxy-1-naphthylfenoterol (MNF) inhibits cancer cell proliferation in vitro through cell-type specific modulation of β2-adrenergic receptor and/or cannabinoid receptor function. Here, we report an investigation into antitumor activity of MNF in rat C6 glioma cells. The potent antiproliferative action of MNF in these cells (IC50 of ∼1 nmol/L) was refractory to pharmacological inhibition of β2-adrenergic receptor while a synthetic inverse agonist of cannabinoid receptor 1 significantly blocked MNF activity. The antitumor activity of MNF was then assessed in a C6 glioblastoma xenograft model in mice. Three days after subcutaneous implantation of C6 cells into the lower flank of nude mice, these animals were subjected to i.p. injections of saline or MNF (2 mg/kg) for 19 days and tumor volumes were measured over the course of the experiment. Gene expression analysis, quantitative RT-PCR and immunoblot assays were performed on the tumors after treatment. Significant reduction in mean tumor volumes was observed in mice receiving MNF when compared with the saline-treated group. We identified clusters in expression of genes involved in cellular proliferation, as well as molecular markers for glioblastoma that were significantly downregulated in tumors of MNF-treated mice as compared to saline-injected controls. The efficacy of MNF against C6 glioma cell proliferation in vivo and in vitro was accompanied by marked reduction in the expression of cell cycle regulator proteins. This study is the first demonstration of MNF-dependent chemoprevention of a glioblastoma xenograft model and may offer a potential mechanism for its anticancer action in vivo.
|DOI - PubMed|
Abstract: The genus β human papillomavirus (HPV) type 8 is associated with nonmelanoma skin cancer in patients with epidermodysplasia verruciformis, and evidence for its protumorigenic potential in the general population increases. To date, strategies to suppress genus β HPV infections are limited. Interferon regulatory factors IRF-3 and IRF-7 play key roles in the activation of the innate immune response to viral infections. In this study, we show for the first time that both IRF-3 and IRF-7 regulate transcription of a papillomavirus, but with opposing effects. IRF-7, expressed in the suprabasal layers of human epidermis, increased HPV8 late promoter activity via direct binding to viral DNA. UV-B light-induced activation of the HPV8 promoter involved IRF-7 as a downstream effector. In contrast, IRF-3, expressed in all layers of human epidermis, induced strong HPV8 suppression in primary keratinocytes. IRF-3-mediated suppression prevailed over IRF-7-induced HPV8 transcription. Unlike the E6 oncoprotein of the mucosal high-risk HPV16, the HPV8 E6 protein did not bind to IRF-3 and only weakly antagonized its activity. Strong antiviral activity was also observed, when keratinocytes were treated with potent IRF-3 activators, poly(I:C) or RNA bearing 5' phosphates. In conclusion, we show that IRF-3 activation induces a state of cell-autonomous immunity against HPV in primary human keratinocytes. Our study suggests that local application of IRF-3-activating compounds might constitute an attractive novel therapeutic strategy against HPV8-associated diseases, particularly in epidermodysplasia verruciformis patients.
|DOI - PubMed|